Immersion in a Second Language at School: Review of the international Research


Professor R. M. Johnstone






6 months, 2001


Professor Richard Johnstone was commissioned by SEED to review the international research literature on 'immersion' approaches to languages education. Immersion is already well-established in Scotland through Gaelic-medium education, and a partial immersion programme in French has been introduced from Primary 1 in Aberdeen . The report sets out what the different models of immersion education are, what forms of provision are needed to sustain them, what processes and strategies are engaged, and what the outcomes are in terms of learners' proficiency, attitudes and retention rates. It also discusses the extent to which immersion forms a feasible proposition for modern languages in Scottish primary and secondary schools and outlines four possible models which local authorities and schools might wish to consider.



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